Of course, Galileo and everyone else should have compared the masses, and the reciprocal variables of forces, inertial resistances, motions, accelerations, actions, and reactions, of each tiny mass relative to the enormous mass of the Earth. It is these slightly different huge ratios which determine the slightly different motions and accelerations of the smaller cannonball and the larger cannonball relative to the enormous mass of the Earth (Chart 30, D1 and D2). But at the minute scale that Galileo observed these interactions, the relative accelerations caused by these slightly unequal ratios was not apparent or perceived.

However, as the scale of these observations increases in size, the relative accelerations of two unequal opposing masses become more and more obvious to the observer (Chart 30, Column D). By the time the scale reaches the mass of the Earth as compared to the mass of the Moon, or as compared to the mass of the Sun, the Relative Gravitational Acceleration of such masses becomes obvious (Chart 30, D6, D8 and D10). Thus it can be said that Galileo and everyone else was fooled by an illusion of scale.

Every gravitational motion and acceleration must be analyzed as a reciprocal and comparative relationship between two opposing masses (Chart 30, Columns A, B, and D). Each comparison involves a unique mass-ratio between every pair of opposing unequal masses (Chart 30, Column B), a unique relative distance between their centers, their unique relative angular momentums (if any), and unique relationships between their reciprocal mass variables, such as their relative forces, relative inertial resistances, and their relative motions (accelerations, actions and reactions) (Chart 30, Column D). The inverse correlation and equivalence between opposing masses (forces and inertial resistances) on the one hand, and their resulting relative gravitational motions (accelerations, actions, and reactions) on the other hand,

is shown on Chart 30, Column C. With so many reciprocal variables it can be very difficult to keep them all straight.

Nevertheless, the correct and critical comparison is the unique mass-ratio of each tiny object relative to the enormous mass of the Earth, rather than the unique mass-ratio of the small cannonball relative to the large cannonball. Again, the failure to recognize this critical comparison is the major reason why the great minds of Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and all the others became confused and made their mistakes.